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1 Prelim topics on Sat Jul 17, 2010 3:49 am



We will learn the life about Rizal on the many researches on the archives done by Ambeth R. Ocampo:

As an historian according to Ambeth there are times when Rizal himself was wrong or twisted some facts to project a positive image on himself in his writings.
One of this is the relationship between Jose Alberto (Rizal’s Uncle) and Teodora Alonso. In one of the many letters of Rizal to Blumentritt, states that Lorenzo Alberto Alonso, father of Teodora was a deputy for the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes, and his uncle Jose Alberto was educated in Europe and spoke German, English, Spanish, & French and a knight in the Order of Isabel La Catolica.
Leon Ma. Guerrero another historian in his researched in Spain could not find a deputy in that name and according to John Bowing Jose Alberto was educated in Calcutta and not in Europe.

Rizal’s biographers described Jose Alberto as a cousin, brother, half brother or stepbrother of Teodora.
Ambeth trip to Biňan led to the discovery that Rizal’s “hagiographers”(researcher for the saints or venerated person) had kept that Teodora Alonso was illegitimate.

Don Zoilo Alberto in his 80’s when interviewed gave Ambeth an idea that he was not proud to be related to Rizal. With this statement “ I don’t remember anything and don’t wish to remember anything”
As Teodoro Agoncillo would had observed “ Lahat ng lugar, ibig nilang lagyan ng historical marker na nagpapatibay na si Rizal nagpunta roon. Aba eh, kahit mga sulok na inihian ni Rizal ibig nilang lagyan ng marker!”

“How are the Rizal and the Albertos related?” Instead of answering back, he requested the maid and gave Ambeth a faded photo copy from an Ilocos Review by a grandson of Isabelo de los Reyes showing how the Rizal’s of Calamba was related to the Florentinos of Ilocos.

Lorenzo Alberto Alonso (Rizal’s grandfather) married a 12 year old Ilocana named Paula Forentino (1814). Years later, the same Lorenzo Alberto was living-in (or married?)in Biňan to Brigida Quintos. Alberto-Quintos union produced 5 children, one of whom was Teodora Alonso Quintos (1849, Claveria decree giving Filipinos surnames, Teodora Alonso Quintos Realonda)
Alberto-Quintos family moved from Biňan to Calamba, where daughter Teodora married Francisco Mercado, had 11 children, one of whom was Rizal.

So it is clear that Jose Alberto was the half brother of Teodora, the latter coming from the illegitimate branch.
Researchers have gone through the books I Santa Cruz Church in Manila where Teodora was baptized say the records are complete down to the 18th century, but strange that the only volume missing happened to be one containing Teodora Alonso’s baptismal record.

The Philippine town plaza is never complete without a statue of Jose Rizal in his winter coat. But some Filipinos do not know about the men and women who fought the very revolution Rizal condemned as premature and doomed to failure.
One of the unsung heroes was Rizal own brother Paciano, a general in the Philippine Revolution.
He was born on March 7, 1851 the second to the 11 children and 10 years older to Jose. Called “ňor Paciano” (short for seňor or seňorita) as a sign of respect when addressing.
Biography shows that Paciano studied at the Colegio de San Jose & later in Santo Tomas in Manila. But Paciano had to drop out of school due to his association with the martyred priest, Fr. Jose Burgos branded as filibuster and executed with two other priests, Fr. Mariano Gomez and Fr. Jacinto Zamora (1872).

Paciano was a messenger of Fr. Burgos said to have lived in his house. It is stated that when Jose started his schooling in Manila of June 10, 1872 he had to use the surname “Rizal” instead of Mercado. (in his youth he thought he was illegitimate), but after Jose’s execution the whole family dropped the Mercado adopted the illustrious surname RIZAL.
Paciano settled in Calamba to oversee their hacienda and become padre de familia. He was secretly responsible for sending his younger brother Jose off to Europe, with the disapproval of their mother. They had a long correspondence, advising him and sending him monthly stipend.

Paciano & Jose made a pact that they would work for the country and thus only one should get married. One of his homecoming from Europe he insisted on marrying his cousin Leonor Rivera but was discouraged by his brother by saying “Iniisip mo lang ang iyong sarili” and sent him off back to Europe.
After Rizal’s execution Paciano joined Aguinaldo’s army and rose to the rank of general. He died I Los Baňos on April 13, 1930.

Unlike Jose, Paciano is a big mystery. All documents on him naturally ends with the execution of his brother. Following the lead that he was a general in the revolution, the Philippine Insurgent Records (PIR) and the National Library found handful documents on Paciano. And with no references on his military command in Laguna.

In contrast to the fully documented Jose, Paciano had only 2 photographed pictures a candid shot without his knowledge and of his corps.
Ambeth visit to Paciano home in Los Baňos, with his grandchildren, Franz & Edmundo Lopez Rizal and their sister Eugenia Lopez Villaruz, can’t help but ask the rumors that the grandchildren were “illegitimate”, since Paciano Rizal did not marry. And the reason their lolo did not want to be photograph was because he was a wanted man, and he could walk everywhere without being recognized.

Grandchildren description of their lolo was, had very fair complexion, rosy cheeks, more refine ad serious, taller and more slender, with a nose that is fine, beautiful and sharp pointed, but bow-legged.
Historian Epifanio de los Santos (EDSA) wonder about Paciano’s features “Bakit hindi sya kamukha ng mga kapatid niya….?

Grandchildren related, he was more handsome that the national hero and much taller around 5’7, 5’9. A quite man who didn’t talk much, not talk about their brother Jose. Their memory about their grandfather came from their grandmother Narcisa Rizal, the story teller of the family.

Pedro Patero’s account of his negotiations peace between Spain and the Filipinos revolutionaries, “El Pacto de Biak na Bato” , Paciano relates:
“What do you want? That we make peace with Spain? That we be the bearer and acceptor of peace, when they have shot my brother, Pepe, banished my parents and relatives, falsely accused us to the last of my family, confiscating our lands and hurling a thousand horrors on our faces? Ah, Don Pedro, dig a deep well. Fill it from the top to bottom with all the bolos and lances that you wish. Then, command me to throw myself into it and I Paciano Rizal, will do just that, but do not ask me for peace because that, Don Pedro, is impossible- absurd!”

Paciano exploits reveal getting the Spaniards to surrender in Calamba, by using firecrackers to show the Filipinos were heavily armed. After 3 days the Spaniards surrendered. In his letter to the PIR seen at the National Library Paciano requested for the status of the Americans if they were allies or enemies. Their suspicious actuation in the area proved right, August 13, 1898, Filipinos was tricked by the Americans, they fought another battle.
1900, weakened by malaria, Paciano was captured by the Americans and is said to have refused to swear allegiance to the flag of the USA. While Apolinario Mabini the paralytic was exiled to Guam because he refused allegiance to America.

May unanswered questions left, but nothing is definite as of now, except that Paciano Rizal proves like other heroes of the Revolution of 1896 and 1898, should be rescued from obscurity and given the rightful place in our history

People tracing their ancestry in the Philippines often discover a friar somewhere in the family tree. Having a friar as an ancestor has been an accepted fact of life, a situation fully used in Rizal’s novel Noli & Fili.

Rizal family had a friar in its fold, Fr. Leoncio Lopez, the parish priest of Calamba.
In one of Rizal writing with F. Blumentritt from Ghent (Aug 23, 1891), he recalls that he was scolded by his mother for raising his voice to Fr. Leoncio, who had doubted his authorship of some poems. But some years later he gained fame as a poet in Ateneo. In his 70’s Fr. Leoncio travelled all the way to Manila just to apologize, thus endearing himself to Rizal.

Indio, tall, straight, and distinguished; cultured but timid and tender… A friend of my father. He was related to my family. He was a just, liberated and tolerant man. You will see his image in my new book ( El Filibusterismo) I call him Fr.Florentino. He was a musician, poet and naturalist. He meddled in politics. He never had anything to do with the election of the gobernadorcillo. We were at peace.
One wonders how a Filipino could become a parish priest of a Dominican town as rich as Calamba. And how the many biographers are content that Rizal’s remark that “he was related to my family”. As Ambeth would have stated that with Rizal’s letter, one usually has to read very carefully to pick out what is not written, because Rizal often left out what is important.

Ambeth realized in one of the invitation to a picnic with Mr. Francisco Rizal Lopez and Mrs Eugenia Lopez Villaruz to their lolo Paciano Rizal’s lake side retreat in Los Banos. There they showed to Ambeth a copy of their lolo’s baptismal certificate signed by Fr. Leoncio Lopez.

When Ambeth saw this he remembered the late Dr. Leoncio Lopez Rizal, an uncle to the host, who lived on Lopez Rizal Street in Mandaluyong. With a little hesitation Ambeth asked an immodest question, “is it true that Fr. Lopez is your great grandfather?” With a smile Mr. Francisco Lopez Rizal said “You’re quite right. Yes he was our great-grandfather.” And continued his explanation,

“You see my mother Emiliana Rizal was the daughter of Paciano Rizal. She married her first cousin Antonino Lopez, who was the son of my uncle Jose Rizal’s sister Narcisa. Our grandmother Narcisa Rizal, married Antonio Lopez, who was the son of Fr. Leoncio Lopez.”

As an historian Ambeth would not work on hearsay, as there are no documents to prove it.
The circumstantial evidence proves that, “When our lola Sisa married Antonio Lopez they lived in the parish house when Fr. Leoncio was cura parroco. When Fr. Leoncio died all his books and little possessions he had were inherited by my grandfather Antonio Lopez.
Amazed by this bit of oral history Ambeth was still left with more questions, “How come no one ever bothered to find out about Fr. Leoncio Lopez before?” (3/17/89)

Blumentritt’s Role in the Propaganda War
Ferdinand Blumentritt was the first European scholars to specialize in the Philippine Studies long before it was popular to do so. He was a good friend and correspondent of Jose Rizal (1886). Two whole volumes of Rizal’s printed correspondence, the Epistolarion Rizalino, are devoted to their letters.
Very little known about Blumentritt, but when RP-US Bases Agreement is discussed Blumentritt efforts in the propaganda war against US imperialistic designs in the early 1900 is well remembered.
From 1906-1913, Blumentritt corresponded in Spanish with Higino Francisco, a relative of Rizal, who risked danger smuggling copies of Noli me tangere into the country. Blumentritt’s letter to Francisco, he said that during the Spanish regime he attacked anti –Filipino writers like Quiopquiap and Retana. And during the American period, he attacked American writers like James Le Roy, who published books on the Philippines.

Pro-Filipino, Blumenritt wrote to Francisco in 1910:
I cannot defend the just and legal aspirations of the country and paint the reality of the aims of the imperialist politics in the Philippines. I attack the American imperialists and jingos as if I am a bandit. This is not important as I will not abandon the just cause of the Philippines even if the jingos attack me personally instead of attacking my arguments. These attacks only serve to prove that I am right, they hit below the belt because they do not have reason nor arguments to justify occupation of the Philippines.
Emile Witte, a press counselor for the German Embassy in Washington (1898-1907) later worked in the German Foreign Office, made a number of references to Blumenritt’s activities:

Since the Spanish-American war, there has time and again come the denial of official and semi official character from the German side of any design against Manila and the island. I can testify however, of the fact that between the Filipinos and the foreign office in Berlin, there was a secret alliance brought about by Prof Blumentritt, publicity agent in Prague for the insurgent natives fighting for their freedom.

Witte advised the German ambassador that if such an article was published, it could generate a lot of negative opinion against Germany.
“ A prophecy that the American would never subjugate the Filipinos, who, besides would be glad to put themselves under a German protectorate”
The ambassador coolly replied “We must not allow America to become too large” . the article was published.

Blumenritt’s prophecy was right, America had kept her hand off the Philippines. Or Germany would have step in.

PROPAGANDA- publicity to promote something (idea, policy, or cause), misleading publicity (deceptive or distorted information)

Jose Rizal’s connection with Maximo Viola.
As a medical student in Barcelona, Spain he met Dr. Jose Rizal and became his close friend.
He helped Rizal and other propagandas work for justice and changes in the government of the Philippines.

Date of Birth: October 17, 1857
Place of Birth: San Miguel, Bulacan
Date of Death: September 3, 1933
In Gay Paris (1885-86)

Shortly after terminating his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid, Rizal who was 24yrs old and a physician decided to go to Paris to acquire more knowledge on ophthalmology.

Rizal stopped by at Barcelona to visit his friend, Dr. Maximo Viola, a medical student and a member of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan.

Which time he befriended Senor Eusebio Corominas, editor of the newspaper La Publicidad and made a crayon sketch of Don Miguel Morayta, owner of La Publicidad and a statesman.

In Berlin
Rizal was heart-broken, weakened, and discouraged, felt hunger and deprivation. I was on a point of throwing my work into the fire as a thing accursed and fit only to die.

A telegram from Barcelona arrived. It was sent by Dr. Maximo Viola, informing Rizal of his coming visit to Berlin.

His friend, Viola, a scion of a rich family in San Miguel, Bulacan, would surely lend him money for the publication of the novel Noli.

Indeed, Viola was God send. Without him, the Noli would most likely never appear in print. The meeting between Rizal and Viola was a joyous one.

Viola, loaded with money, came to Berlin to invite Rizal to join him on a tour of Europe.

When he learned of Rizal’s predicament, he kindly agreed to postpone the tour and, instead, advanced some money so that the novel could be printed.

The first edition of Noli was printed in Berlin in 1887.
The cost of printing was 3oo pesos (advanced by Viola) for 2000 copies.

Rizal gave to Viola the galley proofs of the Noli.
“To my dear friend, Maximo Viola, the first to read and appreciate my work-Jose Rizal, March 29, 1887, Berlin.”
March 29, 1887, Was the date when Noli Me Tangere came off the press.

Noli Me Tangere, A new classic was thus born in Philippine Literature, a book which caused a great stir in its times and which still a stirring book at the present time.

Valentin Ventura
Valentin was married to Carmen Tobar who was a Spanish mestiza and had four children Jose, Valentine, Carmen, Maria. He and his family came back to the Philippines in the late 1920's only to find the unsatisfactory conditions of the country. went back to Spain, and died in the early 1930's. His remains were burried in Barcelona.

Rizal got the chance to meet and be friend Valentin was during the stay of Rizal in his house in Paris. That was then he had an opportunity to listen to the ideas which he greatly admired.

He used to read the novel Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo during his free time. He was so impressed by the work of Rizal's novel Fili that he read it all over again, he described it as perfect, correct, vigorous, poetic, and deeply felt.
When the printing of Fili was suspended due to lack of funds, he offered his money to support the book. 1881, while Rizal was in Belgium, Valentin sent the amount of 150 pesos aid for the publication.

When the book was published and distributed, Rizal gave him the original manuscript of the novel as a token of his gratitude for his contribution. This was kept by the latter as a souvenir for his family, an offer from a Spanish-American Museum to buy the manuscript, he rejected the offer and said that if the Philippine Government would desire to have the copy, he is more than willing to give it as a donation. The manuscript was acquired by the National Library through Dr. Tinidad H. Pardo de Tavera.

Greatest general of the revolution
One of the propagandist in Spain
A Fil Pharmacist and general who fought in the Phil. American War.

Had a conflict with Rizal , to a woman he fondly loved, Nelly Bousted.

An Ilocano Filipino painter and political activist
One of the first recognized Philippine artist for his work Spolarium, which he submitted to the Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884, which won him gold medal.
was an accomplished painter who studied in the Madrid Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.

Calamba was an hacienda town which belong to the Dominicans Order. A picturesque town nestling on a verdant plain covered with irrigated rice fields and sugar –land. In the south (Batangas) is Mt. Makiling; East is the Laguna de Bay; North is the distant Antipolo.

1876, at age 15 (already studying in Ateneo) he wrote Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo (In Memory of My Town). At 3 years old, frail and sickly and undersized, his parents built a nipa cottage with garden surrounding it and a yaya to take care of him. His memories are the daily Angelus prayer; happy moonlight nights at the azotea and stories about fairies; nocturnal walk in the town by the river; his 1st sorrow for the death of his favorite sister Concha (Concepcion). Took part in family prayer; by 5 years old read the Spanish family Bible; began doing some sketches and molding clay. One man he esteemed in Calamba was Fr, Leoncio Lopez the town parish priest. The story of the moth his mother told him. At the age of 8 wrote his 1st poem , Sa Aking Mga Kababata; then his 1st dramatic comedy work stage in Calamba festival, and got interested too in magic.

Early teachers, his mother Teodora; private tutors Maestro Celestino and Maestro Lucas Padua; Leon Monroy who taught him Spanish.
Now Jose was ready for a private schooling and took him Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Binan.

Jose Alberto

Paula Florentino

Lorenzo Alberto Alonso ↔ Brigida de Quintos

Juan Mercado ↔Cirilia Alejandro ↕

Francisco Mercado ↔ Teodora Alonso Quintos

Paciano----- Emiliana↖
Narcisa --------------↑----------Antonino
Olympia ↓
Lucia Antonio
Maria ↑
Jose Fr. Leoncio Lopez

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